We cannot speak about the avant-garde in the 1920s and 1930s without mentioning Jan Tschichold. In the book Jan Tschichold : Posters of the Avant garde the writer goes thru Tschichold involvement in this so-called New typography avant –garde I will be using this book has a reference, of what part Tschichold has taken in the New Typography movement. The writer says:
While Europe at war in 1944 against fascist powers as it its height ,an exhibition is being held in the Museum of Modern Art in New York marking the institution 15th anniversary:” Art in Progress “ the catalogue stated:” During the twenties Rodchenko and the Russian supremacists introduced Geometrical patterns in posters, this graphic and typographical potentialities were further explored by another Russian, El Lissitzky, by Van Doesburg and the Dutch De Stijl group whom Mondrian was a foremost painter, and somewhat a later y John Tschichold in Munich, Herbet Bayer and others in and around the Bauhaus, and Ladislav Sutnar in Prague:” the writer says that Stunar has assisted in assembling the exhibition section on modern posters.[2007, p.19]
Image below:Image retrieved ://digitalarts.ucsd.edu El Lissitzky, Beat the Whites with the Red Wedge (1919)
He says that in 1923, Tschichold began working as a freelance typographic designer and calligrapher for the printer Fischer & Witting and the publisher Insel Verlag, both based in Leipzip. He says that: `In August of that year he visited the first Bauhaus exhibition in Weimar. Greatly inspired by what he saw, he soon began to progressively incorporate functional Bauhaus and Russian constructivist designs theories, and the visionary ideas of the Dutch De Stijl movement into his own work.´[2007,p.9]
Tschichold carer was changed and he took his part in the new typography movement avant – garde. The writer says that `At the age of 23 Tschichold quickly became the uncompromising voice and guiding force of what would be known as the New Typography´.[2007,p.9]
Tschichold released his first book Die Neue typography, published in 1928 the writer says that is was f the most important documents in modernist graphic design. The writer describes how Tschichold type was: Typography should produce dynamism and type should imply movement as well as balance. [2007, p.9]
As many modernists Tschichold shared the same views of order, clarity ,layout, space and so on… looking at the history of the New Typography avant- garde I could say that the need, that they had to have a neutral simple type, were the same 30 years later of designers that so long have waited for a type like Helvetica.
Tschichold has started to realise that the involvement of this typography was more a new style it was a political one.
The writer says that: After the Nazi Victory in the March 5 elections of 1933,both Tschichold and his wife were arrested, having been labelled “ Cultural Bolsheviks”. Soviet posters found in their apartment further bolstered the Nazi’s suspicions of Tschichold having communist ties. Shortly after Tschichold arrest he was removed from his teaching post at the Meiaterschule having being accused of advocating “un- German” typography. Edith Tschichold was released a few days later and Tschichold himself was released after being held for six weeks in “protective custody”.[2007, p.11]
Retrieved from resourcefuldesign.com Jan tschichold
All this events have changed Tschichold views and the write says: `Tschichold began to reconsider and eventually reject the principles of the New Typography as well as the exclusive use of san-serifs typefaces.[2007, p.11]
The new typography had been a response to the disorder in European typography in 1920s Tschichold was convinced that there was no more need for progress.[2007, p.11]
Tschichold wanted to be free form political pressure in regards of choice of typography the writer says: although he continued to consider The New typography appropriate for fields like Advertising a perhaps for some publications regarding contemporary art and architecture, he found it highly inappropriate for most scholarly and literary publications.[2007, p.13]
Tschichold influence in the New Typography in undeniable the whole movement has became strong and more known because of Tschichold expressive views at the beginning as the writer says: Tschichold not only spread the principles of the New typography but also those of Russian constructivism and Bauhaus throughout Europe and North America. Tschicholds influence on future graphic designers was invaluable. In the United States, Alex Brodovitch , art director of Harper’s Bazaar who revolutionised American magazine design, was one of many graphic designers who openly acknowledged his debt to Tschichold.
Image retrieved from:http://1.bp.blogspot.com